Journal News Pouch - August 2016


Contents:

  • Zika Virus
  • Yellow Fever
  • Avian Influenza  
  • Ebola 
  • Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV)
  • Emergencies and Disasters Journals
  • Antimicrobial Resistance

ZIKA VIRUS


Zika: mapping the emerging evidence (list of scientific resources complied by WHO)
 

Inactivation and Environmental Stability of Zika Virus
CDC EID, Sept 2016
To the Editor: Zika virus is an emerging virus that has spread to most countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. It is transmitted by mosquitoes and through sexual intercourse. Most persons infected with Zika virus are asymptomatic or experience mild symptoms.
 

Design and testing of novel lethal ovitrap to reduce populations of Aedes mosquitoes
PLoS One, Aug 2016
Dengue virus (and Chikungunya and Zika viruses) is transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes and causes considerable human morbidity and mortality. As there is currently no vaccine or chemoprophylaxis to protect people from dengue virus infection, vector control is the only viable option for disease prevention.
 

The global threat of Zika virus to pregnancy: epidemiology, clinical perspectives, mechanisms, and impact.
BMJ Med, Aug 2016
The causal link between ZIKV infection during pregnancy and microcephaly is now strongly supported. Over 2 billion people live in regions conducive to ZIKV transmission, with ~4 million infections in the Americas predicted for 2016.
 

Contraceptive use among nonpregnant and postpartum women at risk for unintended pregnancy, and female high school students, in the context of Zika preparedness — United States, 2011-2013 and 2015.
CDC MMWR, Aug 2016
Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause congenital microcephaly and brain abnormalities (1,2). Since 2015, Zika virus has been spreading through much of the World Health Organization’s Region of the Americas, including U.S. territories. Zika virus is spread through the bite of Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, by sex with an infected partner, or from a pregnant woman to her fetus during pregnancy...
 

Estimating the number of pregnant women infected with Zika virus and expected infants with microcephaly following the Zika virus outbreak in Puerto Rico, 2016.
JAMA Pediatr, Aug 2016
Results: We estimated an IQR of 5900 to 10 300 pregnant women (median, 7800) might be infected during the initial ZIKV outbreak in Puerto Rico. Of these, an IQR of 100 to 270 infants (median, 180) may be born with microcephaly due to congenital ZIKV infection from mid-2016 to mid-2017. In the absence of a ZIKV outbreak, an IQR of 9 to 16 cases (median, 12) of congenital microcephaly are expected in Puerto Rico per year.
 

Zika virus 6 months later. (Commentary)
JAMA, Aug 2016
On January 15, 2016, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention advised pregnant women not to travel to areas where the Zika virus was spreading. Six months later, more than 60 countries or territories have reported new local transmission of Zika. By August 4, 2016, nearly 1700 cases of travel-associated Zika infection, including 479 in pregnant women, had been reported in the continental United States; Puerto Rico is experiencing rapid and extensive spread of the epidemic.
 

Identifying the public's concerns and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's reactions during a health crisis: an analysis of a Zika live Twitter chat.
Am J Infect Control, Aug 2016
We conducted a text analysis to examine original tweets from the public and responses from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) during a live Twitter chat hosted by the CDC. Both the public and the CDC expressed concern about the spread of Zika virus, but the public showed more concern about the consequences it had for women and babies, whereas the CDC focused more on symptoms and education.
 

Zika virus, a new threat for Europe?
PLoS Negl Trop Dis, Aug 2016
In combination with the restricted distribution of European Ae. albopictus, our results on vector competence corroborate the low risk for ZIKV to expand into most parts of Europe with the possible exception of the warmest regions bordering the Mediterranean coastline.
 

Zika virus productively infects primary human placenta-specific macrophages.
JCI Insight, Aug 2016
The strong association of Zika virus infection with congenital defects has led to questions of how a flavivirus is capable of crossing the placental barrier to reach the fetal brain. Here, we demonstrate permissive Zika virus infection of primary human placental macrophages, commonly referred to as Hofbauer cells, and placental villous fibroblasts. We also demonstrate Zika virus infection of Hofbauer cells within the context of the tissue ex vivo using term placental villous explants.
 

Zika virus infects neural progenitors in the adult mouse brain and alters proliferation.
Cell Stem Cell, Aug 2016
Recent world attention has been drawn to a global Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak and its link with devastating cases of microcephaly and Guillain-Barre syndrome. ZIKV infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil...
 

Evidence for transmission of Zika virus by platelet transfusion. (Letter)
New Engl J Med, Aug 2016
This report from Brazil describes two cases of likely ZIKV transmission by blood transfusion from one presymptomatic infected person who donated platelets by apheresis on January 16, 2016. The two leukodepleted platelet units were irradiated with 25 Gy delivered by an IBL-437C gamma irradiator....
 

Persistent detection of Zika virus RNA in semen for six months after symptom onset in a traveler returning from Haiti to Italy, February 2016.
Euro Surveillance, Aug 2016
A man in his early 30s reported in January 2016 a history of fever, asthenia and erythematous rash during a stay in Haiti. On his return to Italy, ZIKV RNA was detected in his urine and saliva 91 days after symptom onset, and in his semen on day 188, six months after symptom onset. Our findings support the possibility of sexual transmission of ZIKV and highlight the importance of continuing to investigate non-vector-borne ZIKV infection.
 

Epidemiology of Zika virus, 1947-2007.
BMJ Glob Health, Aug 2016
12 026 citations were retrieved by the literature search, and 76 articles were included in this review. Evidence of Zika virus infection in humans was found in 29 countries in Africa, 8 countries in Asia and 1 country in Europe. Country-level seroprevalence of Zika virus infection ranged from 0.4% to 53.3%. Seroprevalence of Zika virus infection was found to increase across the lifespan; 15–40% of reproductive-age individuals may have been previously infected.
 

Interim guidance for the evaluation and management of infants with possible congenital Zika virus infection — United States, August 2016. (Update)
CDC MMWR, Aug 2016
CDC has updated its interim guidance for U.S. health care providers caring for infants born to mothers with possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy (1). Laboratory testing is recommended for 1) infants born to mothers with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection during pregnancy and 2) infants who have abnormal clinical or neuroimaging findings suggestive of congenital Zika syndrome and a maternal epidemiologic link suggesting possible transmission, regardless of maternal Zika virus test results.

YELLOW FEVER


Resurgence of Yellow Fever in Angola, 2015–2016
CDC EID, Oct 2016
On January 14, 2016, we received whole blood samples from 3 patients who resided in Luanda, Angola, and were suspected of having viral hemorrhagic fever. All were men, two 22 and one 30 years of age. Clinical manifestations in all patients were fever, headache, nausea, and vomiting. Myalgia, malaise, reduced consciousness, and jaundice each occurred in 2 patients; ...
 



Yellow fever vaccination coverage heterogeneities in Luanda province, Angola
The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Sept 2016
 



Contrasting female-male mortality ratios after routine vaccinations with pentavalent vaccine versus measles and yellow fever vaccine. A cohort study from urban Guinea-Bissau
Vaccine, July 2016
n addition to protection against the target diseases, vaccines may have non-specific effects (NSEs). Measles vaccine (MV) has beneficial NSEs, providing protection against non-measles deaths, most so for girls. By contrast, though protecting against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis,
 



Fractional Dosing of Yellow Fever Vaccine to Extend Supply: A modeling study

Harvard, Aug 2016
Abstract: Background The ongoing yellow fever (YF) epidemic in Angola strains the global vaccine supply, prompting WHO to adopt dose sparing for its ...

AVIAN INFLUENZA 


Rapid detection of highly pathogenic A(H7N7) avian influenza virus genetic markers in heterogenic samples utilizing on-chip SSCP-CE method
Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, Nov 2016
A highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) poses serial threat to humans and animals. Low pathogenic variant of the virus is relatively harmless, but it could evolve into potentially lethal highly pathogenic strain. In the last decade, the latter was responsible for death of 212 humans and culling over 30 million chickens. Commonly used methods of HPAI variant identification are based on genetic analysis, mainly polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique.
 



Cross-protective efficacies of highly-pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 vaccines against a recent H5N8 virus

Virology, Aug 2016

To investigate cross-protective vaccine efficacy of highly-pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses against a recent HPAI H5N8 virus, we immunized C57BL/6 ...
 



Novel residues in the PA protein of avian influenza H7N7 virus affect virulence in mammalian hosts
Virology, Aug 2016
To evaluate the pathogenicity, a highly pathogenic avian influenza H7N7 virus (A/Netherlands/219/03) isolated from human was passaged in mice. A mutant virus (mH7N7) with attenuated virulence was isolated from mouse lung, which had a 3-log higher MLD50 than the wild-type virus (wH7N7). Sequence analysis and reverse genetics study revealed that mutations in PA account for the compromised viral replication in mammalian cells and mice.
 



Surveillance, epidemiological, and virological detection of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses in duck and poultry from Bangladesh
Veterinary Microbiology, Sept 2016
The authors present data from a surveillance study conducted in Bangladesh on circulation of H5N1 in chickens and ducks. This manuscript describes significant information and has merit about prevalence and circulation of avian influenza viruses in poultry through intensive surveillance in Bangladesh.


EBOLA


Clinical Features of and Risk Factors for Fatal Ebola Virus Disease, Moyamba District, Sierra Leone, December 2014–February 2015
CDC EID, Sept 2016
The 2013–2016 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa infected >28,000 people, including >11,000 who died, and disrupted social life in the region. We retrospectively studied clinical signs and symptoms and risk factors for fatal outcome among 31 Ebola virus–positive patients admitted to the Ebola Treatment Center in Moyamba District, Sierra Leone.
 



Ebola Virus Disease, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2014
CDC EID, Sept 2016
During July–November 2014, the Democratic Republic of the Congo underwent its seventh Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak. The etiologic agent was Zaire Ebola virus; 66 cases were reported (overall case-fatality rate 74.2%). Through a retrospective observational study of confirmed EVD in 25 patients admitted to either of 2 Ebola treatment centers, we described clinical features and investigated correlates associated with death.
 



Secondary Infections with Ebola Virus in Rural Communities, Liberia and Guinea, 2014–2015
CDC EID, Sept 2016
Persons who died of Ebola virus disease at home in rural communities in Liberia and Guinea resulted in more secondary infections than persons admitted to Ebola treatment units. Intensified monitoring of contacts of persons who died of this disease in the community is an evidence-based approach to reduce virus transmission in rural communities.
 



Clinical and virological characteristics of Ebola virus disease patients treated with favipiravir (T-705), Sierra Leone, 2014
Oxford Clin Infect Dis, Aug 2016
A retrospective clinical case series was performed for EVD patients in Sierra Leone-China Friendship Hospital. Confirmed EVD patients were sequentially enrolled and treated with either WHO recommended supportive therapy (control group) ...


MERS-CoV


Feasibility of Using Convalescent Plasma Immunotherapy for MERS-CoV Infection, Saudi Arabia
CDC EID, Sept 2016
We explored the feasibility of collecting convalescent plasma for passive immunotherapy of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection by using ELISA to screen serum samples from 443 potential plasma donors: 196 patients with suspected or laboratory-confirmed MERS-CoV infection, 230 healthcare workers, and 17 household contacts exposed to MERS-CoV.
 



Contact Tracing for Imported Case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, China, 2015
CDC EID, Sept 2016
Confirmation of an imported case of infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in China triggered intensive contact tracing and mandatory monitoring. Using a hotline and surveillance video footage was effective for tracing all 110 identified contacts. Contact monitoring detected no secondary transmission of infection in China.
 



Inoculation of goats, sheep, and horses with MERS-CoV does not result in productive viral shedding.
Viruses, Aug 2016
The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first recognized in 2012 and can cause severe disease in infected humans. Dromedary camels are the reservoir for the virus, although, other than nasal discharge, these animals do not display any overt clinical disease. Data from in vitro experiments suggest that other livestock such as sheep, goats, and horses might also contribute to viral transmission...
 



Unraveling the drivers of MERS-CoV transmission
PNAS, July 2016
Persons can get infected by direct or indirect contact with dromedary camels, and although human-to-human transmission is not self-sustaining in the Middle East, it can nonetheless generate large outbreaks, particular in hospital settings. Overall, we still poorly understand how infections from the animal reservoir, the different levels of mixing, and heterogeneities in transmission have contributed to the buildup of MERS-CoV epidemics. Here, we quantify...

EMERGENCY AND DISASTER


International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 



International Journal of Health System and Disaster Management - April-June 2016 Issue  



Journal of Emergency Nursing/Disaster Management  and Response (July 2016) 



Emergency Medicine (Current Issue Aug 2016)
 

ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE


Emerging Infectious Diseases - Antimicrobial resistance articles

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