Journal News Pouch - July 2016


Topics:

  • Zika Virus
  • Yellow Fever
  • Avian Influenza  
  • Ebola 
  • Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV)
  • Emergencies and Disasters

ZIKA VIRUS


Letter: Culex pipiens and Aedes triseriatus Mosquito Susceptibility to Zika Virus
EID, Oct 2016
The recent epidemic spread of Zika virus suggests that Ae. aegypti mosquitoes are the main vector; however, information about the role of other species in driving and maintaining Zika virus transmission is lacking. Of particular concern this summer (2016) is emergence and establishment of Zika virus in previously unaffected geographic areas; with the advent...
 



Time Lags between Exanthematous Illness Attributed to Zika Virus, Guillain-Barré Syndrome, and Microcephaly, Salvador, Brazil
EID, Aug 2016
Zika virus infection emerged as a public health emergency after increasing evidence for its association with neurologic disorders and congenital malformations. In Salvador, Brazil, outbreaks of acute exanthematous illness (AEI) attributed to Zika virus, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), and microcephaly occurred in 2015. We investigated temporal correlations and time lags between these outbreaks to identify a common link between them by using epidemic curves and time series cross-correlations.
 

WHO interim guidance on pregnancy management in the context of Zika virus infection
The Lancet Global Health, Aug 2016
As a result of an unusual clustering of cases of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome, WHO declared the 2015–16 Zika virus outbreak in the Americas a “public health emergency of international concern”.1 As part of its strategic response to the outbreak, WHO is leading normative work to mitigate the potential impact on pregnant women, newborn babies, and other at-risk populations.
 

Outbreak of Zika virus infection, Chiapas State, Mexico, 2015, and first confirmed transmission by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in the Americas
Oxforrd JoID, July 2016
These results demonstrate the continued, rapid northward progression of ZIKV into North America with typically mild disease manifestations, and implicate A. aegypti for the first time as a principal vector in North America.
 

Suspected female-to-male sexual transmission of Zika virus — New York City, 2016
MMWR, July 2016
A routine investigation by the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) identified a nonpregnant woman in her twenties who reported she had engaged in a single event of condomless vaginal intercourse with a male partner the day she returned to NYC (day 0) from travel to an area with ongoing Zika virus transmission. She had headache and abdominal cramping while in the airport awaiting return to NYC.
 

Zika virus, vectors, reservoirs, amplifying hosts, and their potential to spread worldwide: what we know and what we should investigate urgently
International Journal of Infectious Diseases, July 2016
It is a public health imperative to define the domestic and wild animal reservoirs, amplification hosts, and vector capacity of the genera Aedes, Anopheles, and Mansonia. These variables will define the geographic distribution of Zika virus along with the indicated timing and scale of the environmental public health interventions worldwide.

YELLOW FEVER


Synthetic strategy and antiviral evaluation of diamide containing heterocycles targeting dengue and yellow fever virus
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Oct 2016
High-throughput screening of a subset of the CD3 chemical library (Centre for Drug Design and Discovery; KU Leuven) provided us with a lead compound 1, displaying low micromolar potency against dengue virus and yellow fever virus. Within a project aimed at discovering new inhibitors of flaviviruses, substitution of its central imidazole ring led to synthesis of variably substituted pyrazine...
 



Safety and immunogenicity of inactivated poliovirus vaccine when given with measles–rubella combined vaccine and yellow fever vaccine and when given via different administration routes: a phase 4, randomised, non-inferiority trial in The Gambia
The Lancet Global Health, Aug 2016
Between July 10, 2013, and May 8, 2014, we assessed 1662 infants for eligibility, of whom 1504 were enrolled into one of seven groups for vaccine interference and one of four groups for fractional dosing and alternative route of administration. The rubella and yellow fever antibody titres were reduced by co-administration but the seroconversion rates achieved non-inferiority in both cases...
 



Yellow fever vaccination status and safety in hemodialysis patients
International Journal of Infectious Diseases, July 2016
The adverse effects of yellow fever (YF) vaccine in dialysis patients are not well known. There is concern about the risks and benefits of the vaccine in immunocompromised patients living in endemic areas, particularly given the risk of resurgence of urban YF with the spread of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The purpose of this study was to assess the coverage and safety of YF vaccine in chronic dialysis patients.


AVIAN INFLUENZA 


Novel avian influenza A(H5N6) viruses isolated in migratory waterfowl before the first human case reported in China, 201
Scientific Reports, July 2016
In May 2014, China formally confirmed the first human infection with the novel H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) in Sichuan Province. Before the first human case was reported, surveillance of AIVs in wild birds resulted in the detection of three H5N6 viruses in faecal samples from migratory waterfowl in Chenhu wetlands, Hubei Province, China.
 


 

Interventions in live poultry markets for the control of avian influenza: A systematic review
One Health, Dec 2016
The evidence collected in this review endorses permanent LPM-closure as a long-term objective to reduce the zoonotic risk of avian influenza, although its economic and socio-political implications favour less drastic interventions, e.g. weekly rest days, for implementation in the short-term.
 

Epidemiological and virological differences in human clustered and sporadic infections with avian influenza A H7N9
International Journal of Infectious Diseases, Aug 2016
Previous research has suggested that avian influenza A H7N9 has a greater potential pandemic risk than influenza A H5N1. This research investigated the difference in human clustered and sporadic cases of H7N9 virus and estimated the relative risk of clustered infections.
 

Extrapolating theoretical efficacy of inactivated influenza A/H5N1 virus vaccine from human immunogenicity studies
Vaccine, July 2016
Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 has been a public health concern for almost 20 years due to its potential ability to become transmissible among humans. Phase I and II clinical trials have assessed safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of inactivated influenza A/H5N1 virus vaccines. A shortage of vaccine is likely to occur during the first months of a pandemic. Hence, determining whether to give one dose to more people or two doses to fewer people to best protect the population is essential.

 


EBOLA


Exposure-Specific and Age-Specific Attack Rates for Ebola Virus Disease in Ebola-Affected Households, Sierra Leone
EID, Aug 2016
Using histories of household members of Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors in Sierra Leone, we calculated risk of EVD by age and exposure level, adjusting for confounding and clustering, and estimated relative risks. Of 937 household members in 94 households, 448 (48%) had had EVD. Highly correlated with exposure, EVD risk ranged from 83% for touching a corpse to 8% for minimal contact and varied by age group...
 



Assessment of Community Event–Based Surveillance for Ebola Virus Disease, Sierra Leone, 2015
EID, Aug 2016
In 2015, community event–based surveillance (CEBS) was implemented in Sierra Leone to assist with the detection of Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases. We assessed the sensitivity of CEBS for finding EVD cases during a 7-month period, and in a 6-week subanalysis, we assessed the timeliness of reporting cases with no known epidemiologic links at time of detection.
 



Ebola response in Sierra Leone: The impact on children
Journal of Infection, July 2016
The West African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is the largest ever seen, with over 28,000 cases and 11,300 deaths since early 2014. The magnitude of the outbreak has tested fragile governmental health systems and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to their limit. Here we discuss the outbreak in the Western Area of Sierra Leone, the shape of the local response and the impact the response had on caring for children suspected of having contracted EVD.
 


 

Risk perceptions of MSF healthcare workers on the recent Ebola epidemic in West Africa
New Microbes and New Infections, July 2016
Healthcare workers (HCW) in general are considered to be at high risk during epidemics. Their training for Ebola provided by Médecins sans frontières (MSF) is presently based on imparting factual information, which does not necessarily translate into knowledge or appropriate practices. We aimed to understand the importance of risk perception during training. A total of 130 MSF-trained HCW traveling to Africa during the Ebola epidemic of 2014–2015 participated in this longitudinal cohort study.
 

MERS-CoV


Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Transmission in Extended Family, Saudi Arabia, 2014
EID, Aug 2016
Risk factors for human-to-human transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) are largely unknown. After MERS-CoV infections occurred in an extended family in Saudi Arabia in 2014, relatives were tested by using real-time reverse transcription PCR (rRT-PCR) and serologic methods. Among 79 relatives...
 



Taking forward a ‘One Health’ approach for turning the tide against the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and other zoonotic pathogens with epidemic potential
International Journal of Infectious Diseases, June 2016
The appearance of novel pathogens of humans with epidemic potential and high mortality rates have threatened global health security for centuries. Over the past few decades new zoonotic infectious diseases of humans caused by pathogens arising from animal reservoirs have ...
 



Prevalence of comorbidities in the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV): a systematic review and meta-analysis
International Journal of Infectious Diseases, Aug 2016
The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is associated with life-threatening severe illnesses and a mortality rate of approximately 35%, particularly in patients with underlying comorbidities. A systematic analysis of 637 MERS-CoV cases suggests that diabetes and hypertension are equally prevalent in approximately 50% of the patients. Cardiac diseases are present in 30% and obesity in 16% of the cases.
 



Single-dose treatment with a humanized neutralizing antibody affords full protection of a human transgenic mouse model from lethal Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-coronavirus infection
Antiviral Research, Aug 2016
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is continuously spreading and causing severe and fatal acute respiratory disease in humans. Prophylactic and therapeutic strategies are therefore urgently needed to control MERS-CoV infection. Here, we generated a humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb), designated ...
 

EMERGENCY AND DISASTER


International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 



International Journal of Health System and Disaster Management - April-June 2016 Issue  



Journal of Emergency Nursing/Disaster Management  and Response (July 2016) 



Emergency Medicine (Current Issue July 2016)
 

Category: