Journal News Pouch - June 2016


Contents:

  • Zika Virus
  • Yellow Fever
  • Avian Influenza  
  • Ebola 
  • Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV)
  • Emergencies and Disasters

ZIKA VIRUS


A Literature Review of Zika Virus
Emerging Infectious Diseases, July 2016
Given the wealth of new information about Zika virus, we conducted a literature review to summarize the published findings. This review contextualizes the ongoing Zika virus epidemic in the Americas and identifies knowledge gaps that must be addressed to combat Zika virus successfully.
 



Screening of Blood Donations for Zika Virus Infection - Puerto Rico, April 3-June 11, 2016
MMWR, 17 June
Zika virus, a flavivirus transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that has been identified as a cause of congenital microcephaly and other serious brain defects, became recognized as a potential threat to blood safety after reports from a 2013-2014 outbreak in French Polynesia.
 



Defining the syndrome associated with congenital Zika virus infection
WHO Bulletin, June 2016
Zika virus infection in humans is usually mild or asymptomatic. However, some babies born to women infected with Zika virus have severe neurological sequelae. An unusual cluster of cases of congenital microcephaly and other neurological disorders in the WHO Region of the Americas, led to the declaration of a public health emergency of international concern by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 1 February 2016.
 



Zika Virus Surveillance and Preparedness — New York City, 2015–2016
MMWR, 17 June
Zika virus has rapidly spread through the World Health Organization’s Region of the Americas since being identified in Brazil in early 2015. Transmitted primarily through the bite of infected Aedes species mosquitoes, Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause spontaneous abortion and birth defects, including microcephaly...
 



Zika Virus Disease in Colombia — Preliminary Report
New England Journal of medicine, June 2016
By April 2, 2016, there were 65,726 cases of ZVD reported in Colombia, of which 2485 (4%) were confirmed by means of reverse-transcriptase–polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay. The overall reported incidence of ZVD among female patients was twice that in male patients.
 


PLOS Current Outbreaks, June 2016
The microcephalies derived from the current outbreak are associated with intracerebral calcifications, malformation of the ventricular system, migratory disorders in the telencephalon and, in a lower frequency, malformation of the cerebellum and brainstem.
 

YELLOW FEVER


Letter- Yellow Fever in a Worker Returning to China from Angola, March 2016
CDC EID, June 2016
To the Editor: Yellow fever is disease caused by a flavivirus that is transmitted to humans and nonhuman primates through the bites of infected mosquitoes. In 2013, an estimated 130,000 persons in Africa experienced fever with jaundice or hemorrhage associated with yellow fever; ≈78,000 of these infections were fatal...
 



Yellow fever cases in Asia: primed for an epidemic
International Journal of Infectious Diseases, July 2016
There is currently an emerging outbreak of yellow fever in Angola. Cases in infected travellers have been reported in a number of other African countries, as well as in China, representing the first ever documented cases of yellow fever in Asia. There is a large Chinese workforce in Angola, many of whom may be unvaccinated, increasing the risk of ongoing importation of yellow fever into Asia via busy commercial airline routes.
 

Why is the yellow fever outbreak in Angola a ‘threat to the entire world’?
International Journal of Infectious Diseases, July 2016
The short answer to the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration is because yellow fever has spread throughout the country, causing probably thousands of cases and hundreds of deaths, and the world has run out of vaccine. This is very bad because cases so far have been imported into the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Mauritania, Kenya, and even China, the first time in history that cases have been confirmed in Asia.
 

Yellow fever: the consequences of neglect
The Lancet, July 2016
Yellow fever is a vector-borne viral disease endemic to Africa and Americas that represented a major challenge for public health until the early 1930s, when a vaccine was developed. Mass immunisation campaigns have greatly reduced its incidence and now yellow fever is mainly reported in small outbreaks
 

Yellow fever: the resurgence of a forgotten disease
The Lancet, June 2016 
The possibility that a mosquito bite during pregnancy could cause severe brain damage in newborn babies has alarmed the public and astonished scientists. The Zika outbreak in the Americas shows how a disease that slumbered for six decades in Africa and Asia, never causing an outbreak, can become a global health emergency.
 

Yellow fever vaccine supply: a possible solution
The Lancet, April 2016 
The global threat of the emerging epidemic of yellow fever in Angola1 is underscored by the recent spread of similar Aedes aegypti mosquito-borne viruses including dengue, chikungunya, and now Zika. Since their emergence in the 1950s, dengue virus infection has been reported from more than 128 countries...
 

Yellow fever threat to Asia: A model national contingency plan
International Journal of Infectious Diseases, April 2016
We urge all Asian countries at risk-- particularly India & southern China – to draft a contingency plan as soon as possible. This also applies to every country in Asia that has dengue, because the same mosquitoes that transmit dengue can transmit YF from an imported case. This is to avoid falling into the same unprepared situation that West Africa experienced with Ebola.

AVIAN INFLUENZA 



Global Epidemiology of Avian Influenza A H5N1 Virus Infection in Humans, 1997-2015: a Systematic Review of Individual Case Data
Lancet: Infectious Diseases, July 2016
Avian influenza A H5N1 viruses have caused many, typically severe, human infections since the first human case was reported in 1997. However, no comprehensive epidemiological analysis of global human cases of H5N1 from 1997 to 2015 exists.
 



Surveillance for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in Wild Birds during Outbreaks in Domestic Poultry, Minnesota, 2015
CDC EID, June 2016
In 2015, a major outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection devastated poultry facilities in Minnesota, USA. To understand the potential role of wild birds, we tested 3,139 waterfowl fecal samples and 104 sick and dead birds during March 9–June 4, 2015. HPAIV was isolated from a Cooper’s hawk but not from waterfowl fecal samples.
 



Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses and Generation of Novel Reassortants, United States, 2014–2015
CDC EID, June 2016
Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses spread into North America in 2014 during autumn bird migration. Complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 32 H5 viruses identified novel H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 viruses that emerged in late 2014 through reassortment with North American low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses.

 


EBOLA


Post-Ebola Syndrome
Lancet: Infectious Diseases), July 2016
Two high-profile cases with this syndrome have allowed close scrutiny of its pathology raising hope that the lessons can be used to help other sufferers. Talha Khan Burki reports.
 



Recommendations for dealing with waste contaminated with Ebola virus: a Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points approach
WHO Bulletin, June 2016
The collection, transportation, cleaning and shared use of blood-soiled fomites and the shared use of latrines contaminated with blood or bloodied faeces appeared to be associated with particularly high levels of risk of Ebola virus transmission.
 



Inpatient signs and symptoms and factors associated with death in children aged 5 years and younger admitted to two Ebola management centres in Sierra Leone
Lancet Glob Health,  July 2016
We included 91 children in analysis; 52 died (57·1%). Case fatality was higher in children aged less than 2 years (76·5% [26/34]) than those aged 2–5 years (45·6% [26/57]; adjusted HR 3·5 [95% CI 1·5–8·5]) and in those with high (Ct<25) versus low...
 



Epidemiologic characteristics, clinical manifestations, and risk factors of 139 patients with Ebola virus disease in western Sierra Leone

Am J Infect Control, June 2016
This study fully described epidemiological characteristics, clinical manifestations and clinical outcomes of 139 laboratory-confirmed EVD patients who admitted to the JUI Holding and Treatment Centre in western Sierra Leone between 15 November, 2014 and 18 January, 2015.
 

Pregnancy, Labor, and Delivery after Ebola Virus Disease and Implications for Infection Control in Obstetric Services, United States
CDC EID, June 2015
Many of the survivors of the 2014–2015 epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa were women of childbearing age. Limited clinical and laboratory data exist that describe these women’s pregnancies and outcomes.
 

Effective Chemical Inactivation of Ebola Virus
CDC EID, June 2016
Reliable inactivation of specimens before removal from high-level biocontainment is crucial for safe operation. To evaluate efficacy of methods of chemical inactivation, we compared in vitro and in vivo approaches using Ebola virus as a surrogate pathogen. Consequently, we have established parameters and protocols leading to reliable and effective inactivation.

MERS-CoV


Persistence of Antibodies Against Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus
Emerging Infectious Diseases, Oct 2016
To determine how long antibodies against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus persist, we measured long-term antibody responses among persons serologically positive or indeterminate after a 2012 outbreak in Jordan. Antibodies, including neutralizing antibodies, were detectable in 6 (86%) of 7 persons for at least 34 months after the outbreak.
 


 

Oxford Journal of Infectious Diseases
During the study period, 216 MERS-CoV cases were reported. Spike gene or full genome sequences (n=17) were obtained from 99 individuals. Most (72 of 99, 73%) sequences formed a discrete, novel recombinant clade (NRC-2015), which was detected in 6 regions and became predominant by June, 2015.

 



Response to Emergence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, 2013–2014
CDC EID, June 2016
In January 2013, several months after Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first identified in Saudi Arabia, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, began surveillance for MERS-CoV. We analyzed medical chart and laboratory data collected by the Health Authority–Abu Dhabi during January 2013–May 2014.
 



Development of Medical Countermeasures to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus
CDC EID June 2016
Preclinical development of and research on potential Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) medical countermeasures remain preliminary; advancements are needed before most countermeasures are ready to be tested in human clinical trials. Research priorities include standardization of animal models and virus stocks for studying disease pathogenesis and efficacy of medical
 

EMERGENCY AND DISASTER


International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 



International Journal of Health System and Disaster Management - April-June 2016 Issue  



Journal of Emergency Nursing/Disaster Management  and Response  



Emergency Medicine

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