Journal News Pouch - September 2016

 


Contents:

  • Zika Virus
  • Yellow Fever
  • Avian Influenza  
  • Ebola 
  • Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV)
  • Antimicrobial Resistance
  • Emergencies and Disasters Journals

ZIKA VIRUS


Association between Zika virus infection and microcephaly in Brazil, January to May, 2016: preliminary report of a case-control study
The Lancet, Sept 2016
Our data suggest that the microcephaly epidemic is a result of congenital Zika virus infection. We await further data from this ongoing study to assess other potential risk factors and to confirm the strength of association in a larger sample size.
 

Presence of Zika Virus in Conjunctival Fluid
JAMA Ophthalmology, Sept 2016
Detection of ZIKV RNA is a gold standard of confirmation of ZIKV infection. In this study, we described the direct detection and isolation of ZIKV from conjunctival swab samples. Although isolation of ZIKV in cell culture from urine, semen, saliva, and breast milk has been described
 

Distinct Zika Virus Lineage in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil
CDC EID, Oct 2016
Sequencing of isolates from patients in Bahia, Brazil, where most Zika virus cases in Brazil have been reported, resulted in 11 whole and partial Zika virus genomes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a well-supported Bahia-specific Zika virus lineage, which indicates sustained Zika virus circulation in Salvador, Bahia’s capital city, since mid-2014.
 

Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus and Persistence in Semen, New Zealand, 2016
CDC EID, Oct 2016
Zika virus infection is an emerging arboviral disease linked to an increased risk for severe neurologic outcomes and devastating adverse fetal complications, including pregnancy loss and congenital microcephaly.
 

Culex pipiens and Aedes triseriatus Mosquito Susceptibility to Zika Virus
CDC EID, Oct 2016
The recent epidemic spread of Zika virus suggests that Ae. aegypti mosquitoes are the main vector; however, information about the role of other species in driving and maintaining Zika virus transmission is lacking.
 

Prevalence of Zika Virus Infection in Wild African Primates
bioRxiv, Sept 2016
The recent spread of Zika virus is alarming due to its association with birth defects. Though the natural reservoir of ZIKV remains poorly defined, the virus was first described in a captive sentinel macaque in Africa.
 

Zika Vaccine Enters Clinical Trials
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 27 Sept
As the first local mosquito-borne transmissions of the Zika virus are being reported in the continental United States, an investigational vaccine developed by the ...
 

Zika Virus and Global Health Security
The Lancet, Oct 2016
A recent poll found that 77% of the US public is not seriously concerned about Zika virus. Congress went on summer recess without authorising President Obama's US $1.8 billion emergency Zika appropriation request. By Aug 30, 2016, the CDC had spent $194 million of the $222 million allocated to respond to the Zika virus outbreak.
 

Fetal brain lesions after subcutaneous inoculation of Zika virus in a pregnant nonhuman primate
Nature Medicine, Sept 2016
We describe the development of fetal brain lesions after Zika virus (ZIKV) inoculation in a pregnant pigtail macaque. Periventricular lesions developed within 10 d and evolved asymmetrically in the occipital–parietal lobes. Fetal autopsy revealed ZIKV in the brain and significant cerebral white matter hypoplasia, periventricular white matter gliosis, and axonal and ependymal injury.
 

Study: Real-time Zika risk assessment in the United States
BioRxiv, Sept 2016
...We developed a stochastic model that captures variation and uncertainty in ZIKV case reporting...
 

Culex mosquitoes are experimentally unable to transmit Zika virus
Eurosurveillance, Sept 2016
We report that two laboratory colonies of Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex pipiens mosquitoes were experimentally unable to transmit ZIKV either up to 21 days post an infectious blood meal or up to 14 days post intrathoracic inoculation. Infectious viral particles were detected in bodies, heads or saliva by a plaque forming unit assay on Vero cells. We therefore consider it unlikely that Culex mosquitoes are involved in the rapid spread of ZIKV.
 

Potential for Zika virus introduction and transmission in resource-limited countries in Africa and the Asia-Pacific region: a modelling study 
The Lancet ID, Sept 2016
An estimated 2·6 billion people live in areas of Africa and the Asia-Pacific region where the presence of competent mosquito vectors and suitable climatic conditions could support local transmission of Zika virus.
 

Zika virus in semen: lessons from Ebola
The largest Ebola virus disease epidemic in history, the 2014 west African outbreak, left more than 17 000 survivors. Previously, Ebola virus RNA has been detected in semen by RT-PCR up to 101 days and infectious particles via culture up to 82 days after illness onset.
 

Zika: mapping the emerging evidence (list of scientific resources complied by WHO)

YELLOW FEVER


Resurgence of Yellow Fever in Angola, 2015–2016
CDC EID, Oct 2016
Yellow fever virus (YFV) is endemic in tropical and subtropical Africa and South America, and it is transmitted to humans and nonhuman primates through the bites of infected mosquitoes. The virus, a member of the family Flaviviridae, causes yellow fever, which in severe cases manifests as fulminant hemorrhagic fever.
 



Yellow Fever—More a Policy and Planning Problem than a Biological One
CDC EID, Oct 2016
WHO considers the situation of high concern because of the inadequate surveillance system in Angola, one that is incapable of identifying new foci or areas where cases might emerge. Such an inability suggests that many more cases and deaths have already occurred...
 



WHO: Can a mosquito transmit more than one disease?

WHO, 20 Sept

Q: We know that the same mosquito species can carry many diseases (such as dengue, Zika, chikungunya, and yellow fever). Can a mosquito carry more than ...
 



Yellow Fever Outbreaks, Vaccine Shortages and the Hajj and Olympics: Call for Global Vigilance
The Lancet - Correspondence, Sept 2016
The identification in China of 11 non-immunised travellers from west Africa with yellow fever elevated global attention on this vaccine preventable disease that puts about 1 billion people in 46 countries at risk.
 



Fractional Dosing of Yellow Fever Vaccine to Extend Supply: A Modeling Study
bioRxiv, July 2016
The ongoing yellow fever epidemic in Angola strains the global vaccine supply, prompting WHO to adopt dose sparing for its vaccination campaign in Kinshasa in July-August 2016. There is an urgent need to ensure the robustness of fractional-dose vaccination by elucidating the conditions under which dose fractionation would reduce transmission.


AVIAN INFLUENZA 


Update: Influenza Activity--United States and Worldwide, May 22-September 10, 2016
MMWR, 22 Sept
During May 22-September 10, 2016, the US experienced typical low levels of seasonal influenza activity overall; beginning in late August, clinical laboratories reported a slight increase in influenza positive test results and CDC received reports of a small number of localized influenza outbreaks caused by influenza A (H3N2) viruses.
 



Investigation into the Airborne Dissemination of H5N2 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus During the 2015 Spring Outbreaks in the Midwestern United States
Avian Diseases, Sept 2016
We investigated the plausibility of aerosol transmission of H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus during the 2015 spring outbreaks that occurred in the U.S. midwest. Air samples were collected inside and outside of infected turkey and layer facilities. Samples were tested to assess HPAI virus concentration...
 



Isolation of H5N6, H7N9 and H9N2 Avian Influenza A Viruses from Air Sampled at Live Poultry Markets in China, 2014 and 2015
Eurosurveillance, 1 Sept
Zoonotic infections by avian influenza viruses occur at the human-poultry interface, but the modes of transmission have not been fully investigated. We assessed the potential for airborne and fomite transmission at live poultry markets in Guangzhou city and in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), China, during 2014 and 2015...


EBOLA


Ebola Virus Disease in Children, Sierra Leone, 2014–2015
CDC EID, Oct 2016
Children died rapidly, more than half in Ebola holding units before transfer to treatment units.
 


The Ebola epidemic in West Africa was an unprecedented health crisis, causing more than 11,000 deaths ...
 



Experiences and Psychosocial Impact of West Africa Ebola ...

PLOS, 21 Sept

Gershon R, Dernehl LA, Nwankwo E, Zhi Q, Qureshi K. Experiences and Psychosocial Impact of West Africa Ebola Deployment on US Health Care Volunteers.
 



A gendered human rights analysis of Ebola and Zika: locating gender in global health emergencies

ChathamHouse, 18 Sept

Looking specifically at the recent Ebola and Zika outbreaks, what we find particularly troubling in both cases is the paucity of engagement with human rights ...
 



Spatiotemporal Dynamics of the Ebola Epidemic in Guinea and Implications for Vaccination and Disease Elimination: A Computational Modeling Analysis
BioMed Central, 7 Sept
Here, we develop a stochastic agent-based model at the level of a single household that integrates detailed data on Guinean demography, hospitals, Ebola treatment units, contact tracing, and safe burial interventions.
 



Lessons from Ebola: Sources of outbreak information and the associated impact on UC Irvine and Ohio University college students
Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2016
This paper examines the role of outbreak information sources through four domains: knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and stigma related to the 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak. Given the ongoing and unpredictable threat to human health posed by recent emerging infectious diseases (EID), the appearance and exportation of future novel pathogens is expected to continue and, with it, the dependence on reliable risk communication to assist in...
 



Pregnancy outcomes in Liberian women who conceived after recovery from Ebola virus disease
The Lancet GH, Sept 2016
Although sporadic outbreaks continue to arise in west Africa, the recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic, which resulted in nearly 28 650 cases, has been contained. In Liberia specifically, the epidemic began in June, 2014, with the latest outbreak ending in January, 2016.
 


MERS-CoV


Estimation of Severe Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Cases in the Middle East, 2012–2016
CDC EID, Oct 2016
Our traveler-based estimate was 2.3-fold higher than the number of laboratory-confirmed cases recorded.
 



Viral RNA in Blood as Indicator of Severe Outcome in Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection
CDC EID, Oct 2016
We evaluated the diagnostic and clinical usefulness of blood specimens to detect Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in 21 patients from the 2015 outbreak in South Korea. Viral RNA was detected in blood from 33% of patients at initial diagnosis, and the detection preceded a worse clinical course.
 



Persistence of Antibodies against Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus
CDC EID, Oct 2016
o determine how long antibodies against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus persist, we measured long-term antibody responses among persons serologically positive or indeterminate after a 2012 outbreak in Jordan.
 



Viral Load Kinetics of MERS Coronavirus Infection
NEJM, 28 Sept

The outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in South Korea involved 186 patients and resulted in 38 deaths, with four ...
 

Risks of Death and Severe Disease in Patients with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, 2012-2015
Oxford American Journal of Epidemiology, 8 Sept
We estimated the relative risks of death and severe disease among MERS-CoV patients in the Middle East between 2012 and 2015 for several risk factors, using Poisson regression with robust variance and a bootstrap-based expectation maximization algorithm to handle extensive missing data.

ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE


Antimicrobial resistance—a threat to neonate survival
The Lancet GH, Oct 2016
Improvements in child survival have contributed much of the gains in life expectancy at birth during the last two decades. At a global level, neonatal mortality has decreased from 36 to 19 deaths per 1000 livebirths between 1990 and 2012.
 



Time for global political action on antimicrobial resistance
The Lancet ID, Oct 2016
There is nothing new about the problem of pathogens developing resistance to anti-infective drugs. As early as 1945, Alexander Fleming, the discoverer of penicillin, warned in his Nobel Prize speech about the potential for making “microbes resistant to penicillin”. 15 years ago, in an editorial in the first issue of this journal, we described antimicrobials as “A gift to be used sparingly”
 



UN declaration on antimicrobial resistance lacks targets
The Lancet, Oct 2016
Last week's declaration of the UN High-Level Meeting on Antimicrobial Resistance has been criticised by experts for not going far enough. James Reinl reports from New York.
 



Characterisation and antimicrobial resistance of sepsis pathogens in neonates born in tertiary care centres in Delhi, India: a cohort study
The Lancet, Oct 2016
The high incidence of sepsis and alarming degree of antimicrobial resistance among pathogens in neonates born in tertiary hospitals underscore the need to understand the pathogenesis of early-onset sepsis and to devise measures to prevent it in low-income and middle-income countries.
 



Building bridges to operationalise one health – A Sino-Swedish collaboration to tackle antibiotic resistance
One health, Dec 2016
Antibiotic resistance is a complex global health challenge. The recent Global Action Plan on antimicrobial resistance highlights the importance of adopting One Health approaches that can cross traditional disciplinary boundaries. We report on the early experiences of a multisectoral Sino-Swedish research project that aims to address gaps in our current knowledge and seeks to improve the situation through system-wide interventions.
 



WB press release:  By 2050, drug-resistant infections could cause global economic damage on par with 2008 financial crisis
The World Bank, 19 Sept
New research from World Bank shows that antimicrobial resistance would increase poverty and affect poorest countries the most.  The report: “Drug-resistant infections: a threat to our economic future” is available here.
 


 

Resistance of these STIs to the effect of antibiotics has increased rapidly in recent years and has reduced treatment options. Of the 3 STIs, gonorrhoea has ..
 

EMERGENCY AND DISASTER


Mass Casualty Decontamination Guidance and Psychosocial Aspects of CBRN Incident Management: A Review and Synthesis 
PLOS: Currents Disasters, 27 Sept
Mass casualty decontamination is an intervention employed by first responders at the scene of an incident involving noxious contaminants. Many countries have sought to address the challenge of decontaminating large numbers of affected casualties through the provision of rapidly deployable temporary showering structures, with accompanying decontamination protocols.
 



Model-Informed Risk Assessment and Decision Making for an Emerging Infectious Disease in the Asia-Pacific Region
PLOS: Neglected Tropical Diseases, 23 Sept
Effective response to emerging infectious disease threats relies on health care systems that can detect and contain localised outbreaks before they reach a national or international scale.
 


 


International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 

 



International Journal of Health System and Disaster Managemen



Journal of Emergency Nursing/Disaster Management  and Response



Emergency Medicine

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