News Pouch: 14 July 2017






WHO Ebola Situation report: 2 July


Ebola: transforming fear into appropriate action
The Lancet, July 2017
It is interesting that so many of the experts who proffered guidance on outbreak control during the west African Ebola crisis had no previous field experience of Ebola, with some seeming to lack understanding of Ebola epidemiology.

Occupational Exposures to Ebola Virus in Ebola Treatment Center, Conakry, Guinea
CDC EID, 12 July
We report 77 cases of occupational exposures for 57 healthcare workers at the Ebola Treatment Center in Conakry, Guinea, during the Ebola virus disease outbreak in 2014−2015. Despite the high incidence of 3.5 occupational exposures/healthcare worker/year, only 18% of workers were at high risk for transmission, and no infections occurred.

Study probes Ebola exposure in healthcare workers
CIDRAP, 12 July
According to a new study in Emerging Infectious Diseases, most healthcare workers (HCWs) exposed to Ebola virus during the West African outbreak did not contact the deadly disease, despite an average of 3.5 occupation exposures each year.

Africa's missing Ebola outbreaks
The Conversation UK, 13 July
During the fallout from the 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, which killed more than 11,000 people, one of the questions asked of the World Health ...

An outbreak of Ebola in the DRC has been contained. What went right this time?
The Conversation UK, 12 July
The World Health Organisation recently declared the end of the most recent outbreak of Ebola in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). By the time the ...

Can the DRC stop the next Ebola outbreak?
Modern Diplomacy, 12 July
Some unexpectedly good news came out of the long-beleaguered DRC on July 2nd, when the WHO declared an end to the Ebola outbreak that had started just ...


OIE reports on ongoing outbreaks



Taiwan and Belgium report more avian flu outbreaks
CIDRAP, 13 July
In the latest highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreak developments, Taiwan and Belgium reported more H5N8 detections, while Taiwan also reported H5N2 at four more locations, according to separate notifications from the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE).

H5N1 strikes backyard birds in Vietnam
CIDRAP, 12 July
Vietnam's agriculture ministry today reported another highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza outbreak, coming just over a month since its last such event, according to a report today from the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE).

How Live Animal Markets Create a Perfect Storm for Bird Flu
STAT News, 13 July
Late last month, a man in northwest China started to feel the telltale symptoms of the flu. Most of us know those signs, which come on suddenly. A sharp headache, a fever, bone-deep fatigue--followed by that sense of dread that something nasty is about to happen.

China MOA Orders HPAI H7N9 Vaccine Deployed Nationwide This Fall
Avian Flu Diary, 13 July
Less than a month ago, China's MOA announced China to test new H7N9 poultry vaccine in 2 provinces starting in early July. Roughly 2 weeks ago the MOA announced that the (H5 + H7) bivalent Re-8 inactivated vaccine had been delivered to these 2 provinces, and the trial had actually begun. 

Parallel Evolution of Influenza Across Multiple Spatiotemporal Scales
eLife, 27 June
Viral variants that arise in the global influenza population begin as de novo mutations in single infected hosts, but the evolutionary dynamics that transform within-host variation to global genetic diversity are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that influenza evolution within infected humans recapitulates many evolutionary dynamics observed at the global scale.




Animal study suggests vaccines block in-utero Zika transmission
CIDRAP, 13 July
In other Zika developments, a human rights group raised concerns about water, sanitation, and other public health concerns in Brazil, and India announced microcephaly screening for newborns.

Mysterious Zika transmission confounds researchers
CIDRAP, 12 July
Details from the investigation into an unusual Zika infection in the family member of a critially ill man point to person-to-person contact, thought to be rare.


Achieving Safe, Effective, and Durable Zika Virus Vaccines: Lessons from Dengue
The Lancet, 12 July
Because of the similarity of Zika and dengue viruses, an analogous unwanted outcome might occur with some Zika virus vaccine designs. A successful Zika virus vaccine requires challenge experiments that are done at long intervals after immunisation and that identify protection as the absence of viraemia and the absence of an anamnestic antibody response.

Why Zika virus infections are way down in US this summer
USA TODAY, 12 July
ROCHESTER, N.Y. — Zika, the virus that sparked widespread concern last year? It's on the wane, at least for now. The number of people infected with Zika is ...


'Poverty favours the mosquito': experts warn Zika virus could return to Brazil
The Guardian, 14 July

Two months after government says Zika emergency at an end, water shortages and weak health system trigger fears of fresh outbreak.




Center for Research on Globalization, 11 July
Predictably, as with the Influenza A H1N1 outbreak, the World Health Organization is taking a cavalier attitude towards MERS-CoV, or Middle East Respiratory Sindrome-related Coronavirus, which appeared in Saudi Arabia in 2012 and in five years has caused 2.027 cases and 710 deaths, a mortality rate of almost 30 per cent.


Cholera crisis intensifies in Yemen
Reliefweb, 12 July

The cholera epidemic in Yemen is intensifying with around 300,000 people now thought to be infected. According to the UN more than 1,700 associated deaths have been reported, with 7,000 new cases each day. Over two years of conflict have left Yemen's health, water and sanitation systems in crisis.


'Cholera is everywhere': Yemen epidemic spiralling out of control
The Guardian, 13 July
“Cholera is everywhere,” he said, according to a testimony provided by Médecins Sans Frontières, who are caring for his eldest daughter at a cholera treatment centre in Abs. “The water is contaminated and I don’t drink it. We have tanks, but we don’t get water regularly. The situation cannot be worse.”


Cholera – Nigeria - Disease Outbreak News
WHO, 12 July
On 7 June 2017, World Health Organization (WHO) was notified of a cholera outbreak in Kwara State, Nigeria, where the event currently remains localized. The first cases of acute watery diarrhoea were reported during the last week of April 2017 and a sharp increase in the number of cases and deaths has been observed since 1 May 2017. However, the number of new cases reported has shown a decline over the last four reporting weeks.

More than 2,700 cases of chikungunya reported in Bangladesh
CIDRAP, 13 July
Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh is reporting the country's largest ever chikungunya outbreak, with more than 2,700 cases reported since May, Indo-Asian News Service (IANS) reported yesterday.


Who pays for cooperation in global health? A comparative analysis of WHO, the World Bank, the Global Fund to Fight HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance
The Lancet, January 2017
In this report we assess who pays for cooperation in global health through an analysis of the financial flows of WHO, the World Bank, the Global Fund to Fight HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria, and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. The past few decades have seen the consolidation of influence in the disproportionate roles the USA, UK, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation have had in financing three of these four institutions.